| [From Gary Gardner
and Payal Sampat, Mind Over Matter: Recasting the Role of Materials
in Our Lives, Worldwatch Paper 144, December 1998, page 26. Download
the report at WorldWatch]
Recent Proposals for Reductions
in Materials Use and For Increases in Materials Efficiency
|Actions or Proposed Actions
|Austrian National Environment
||To be achieved over the next decade.
|Swedish Ecocycle Commission
||Applies to both material and energy
efficiency; to be achieved over the next 25 to 50 years.
|Dutch National Environment Plan
||Based on a halving of resource
use and a doubling of wealth.
|German Environment Ministry
||Applies to non-renewable raw materials;
to be achieved by 2020.
|Factor 10 Club
||Declaration by 16 eminent scholars
from 10countries; reductions in materials flows to be achieved over
30-50 years in industrial nations.
|OECD-Council at Ministerial Level
||Is commissioning studies on the
potential for efficiency gains; views eco-efficiency as highly promising.
|U.N. General Assembly
||Calls for studies; gains to be
achieved over 2 to 3 decades.
|World Business Council for Sustainable
Development and UNEP
||Calls for improvements in eco-efficiency
groups, target refers to an increase in materials efficiency; for
others, it refers to an overall reduction in material use. Increases
in efficiency may not result in reduced materials use, especially
over time. Source: See endnote 47